The hottest RFID high frequency or UHF

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RFID: high frequency or UHF

compared with UHF technology, HF technology is much more mature. High frequency technology has been commercialized since 1995. The international organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission also formulated iso/iec 15693 standard in 1999, which regulates the implementation of high-frequency radio frequency identification technology. Cellulose contains a large number of hydroxyl groups. Several manufacturers have produced billions of high-frequency tags, with a yield of more than 99%. Learning curves have been established for label production, data protocol sharing and the construction of the foundation of RFID applications. At present, more than 100 RFID suppliers, including chips, inlays, labels, readers, antennas, printers and software, have been able to support the iso/iec 15693 standard. Craig mackiewicz, industrial design manager of more companies supporting the private Altair company, said at the annual meeting of the American Association of industrial designers held in Austin on August 13 (1) 6: "We consider using other materials as high-frequency products. The commercialization of high-frequency technology has a high success rate in market applications such as library systems, textile leasing and industrial washing.

global standards and power requirements

the band of infinite RF waves is managed by government groups in different regions of the world. 13.56 MHz high-frequency waves are effective international science and medicine (ISM) in the world." band. After Japan agreed to use a consistent high-frequency frequency in December 2002, its power level has also been unified around the world. But for UHF, this is not the case. Some standardization organizations, such as EPCglobal, Inc., are working with the government to coordinate the frequency use of UHF waves

at present, the frequencies used in different regions range from 860 MHz to 960 MHz. The United States has designated 915 MHz for applications with stable and lasting performance of the infinite RFID technology standard, and the European Union has designated 868 MHz. In some countries, the entire UHF band has been applied to military affairs. This diversity in frequency allocation requires manufacturers to produce different labels and readers for different countries or regions, which will lead to a potential problem, that is, to disconnect the supply chain of companies trying to establish a seamless international supply chain connection. Japan has just begun to regulate this field, leaving a feasible UHF band for the use of infinite RF technology. Other Asian countries except China are at the same stage, and China has not responded to the standardization of UHF band

when it comes to power requirements, the en specification of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has two main clauses that are not very beneficial to UHF RFID. The first is about the power limitation, which stipulates that the effective radiation power is 500 watts. The second is about the bandwidth limitation. As a result, the reader cannot be frequency hopped, which also limits the anti-collision arbitration speed of the tag

power constraints shorten the reading distance, and the lack of frequency hopping means that it is impossible to achieve the most appropriate label visibility and reading feasibility. The change of European regulations is expected to allow the use of 869 MHz frequency and 2 watts of effective radiation power. Even at this new power level, the European code will continue to restrict signal modulation between tags and readers, resulting in inconsistencies between the U.S. and European systems

environmental factors

high frequency and UHF RFID systems rely heavily on the communication environment between readers and tags. Because no real energy is emitted in this process, the near-field inductive coupling of high-frequency technology reduces the potential wireless interference, making high-frequency technology highly immune to environmental noise and electromagnetic interference (EMI). UHF far-field technology will emit real energy, and its stronger signal makes it more vulnerable to electromagnetic interference. In the equipment used in hospitals, the possibility of RFID signal interference should be highly valued. Because it meets the standard requirements of the hospital that the electromagnetic radiation is limited to less than 3 watts per meter, high-frequency technology has been applied in the hospital for many years, and there is no electromagnetic interference with typical medical equipment

consumer privacy issues

from a technical point of view, the working mode of RFID and global positioning system (GPS) is different. The new experimental machine needs to change 68 # hydraulic oil after one year of use. Its readable area is limited, and it is not a real-time positioning device for tracking tagged items at all times. At present, most RFID chips use EEPROM storage technology, and data can be permanently deleted from the chip. The implementation of abolishing functions or terminating commands has been described in detail by standardization organizations such as EPCglobal, Inc

this feature provides consumers with the option of whether to turn off the chip when the goods are sold, but this will affect consumers' ability to require further interaction with the chip when it involves after-sales interests. This function is embedded in all products with electronic product coding (EPC) and will be synthesized into all integrated circuits based on EPC standards

in addition, the security encryption method can be embedded in the tag to ensure that the data on the chip can only be read or written by authorized designated users

high frequency product level pilot projects

in the pharmaceutical supply chain and health industry market, a large number of high-frequency pilot projects for product level management are already in the process of implementation. Although there are still a lot of problems to be studied in terms of efficiency and security measures caused by the adoption of RFID solutions in these markets, companies implementing RFID pilot projects are experiencing the improvement of operation process and the benefits of security. Suppliers of the pharmaceutical industry, from medical clothing suppliers to surgical instrument suppliers, as well as health care institutions responsible for blood and tissue specimen processing, are investigating the viability and reliability of high-frequency technology solutions, and have foreseen the important benefits of this technology in practical applications

for example, an inventory system designed for operating rooms and catheter laboratories, as well as radiology, orthopedics, neuroradiology and cardiology departments, and provided with high-frequency identification functions, produced by mobile aspects` has been implemented in four of the top 15 hospitals in the United States. The system automatically manages equipment and inventory supplies. When necessities are removed from the cabinet with RFID function, it can generate reports in real time, and it can also be integrated with the hospital information system to achieve seamless replenishment of items

supplies are inlaid with high-frequency tags, and RFID readers are installed in the cabinet interval. Once items are removed from the cabinet, the supporting software will require scanning the existing inventory, identifying all remaining items, and noting which items were removed, which staff member was removed, and when. RFID enables these steps to occur automatically without manually reading the barcode, which improves productivity, strengthens quality management, reduces consumption, and simplifies the whole processing process

with the installation of the system, it has been proved that the cost of mobile devices can be recovered in less than a year - a significant improvement in the cost recovery of hospital inventory management technology in two to three years

this commitment to a safer, more reliable and more efficient supply chain, with the support of the U.S. Food and drug administration, is driving the influence and demand of RFID in the pharmaceutical industry. Manufacturers, distributors and retailers each take advantage of the many benefits of this technology, and carry out pilot projects in order to better understand and apply this technology in their own businesses. When it comes to frequency selection, high-frequency technology and UHF technology have their own advantages. Due to the characteristics of a large number of technologies and configurations, including reading range, constituent elements, maturity, global standards and global practicality, high-frequency technology can provide the most effective way with the lowest technical and business risks, and can achieve single item level identification and pedigree tracking in the application of medicine and health care

source: packaging Digest China

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